?

Log in

No account? Create an account

Previous Entry Share Next Entry
К нисходящей причинности
evgeniirudnyi

Рассмотрение объекта в виде системы взаимодействующих иерархических уровней требует введение так называемой нисходящей причинности (downward causation, top-bottom causation). Предполагается, что процессы на более высоких уровнях организации влияют на процессы на более низких уровнях. На глаза попалась статья Проблема причинности микро-и макроуровней объекта:«Сверху—вниз» и «Снизу—вверх», где рассматривается данный вопрос. К сожалению, то, каким образом гуманитарии пишут про естественные науки, вызывает полное отторжение. Приведу только одну цитату.

‘Например, следы памяти (информации) есть не только в височных долях мозга, но и на уровне молекул иных систем и даже вне организма. Замечено, что память переходит только из правого полушария в левое, но не наоборот, то есть стохастический вариант записи информации эффективнее, чем прямо детерминированный. Учитывая относительную доминантность левого полушария при бодрствовании, а правого — во сне, можно делать вывод о чередовании господства детерминизма и стохастических процессов, в том числе чередовании управления (воздействия) «сверху — вниз» (бодрствование) и «снизу — вверх» (сон).’


http://blog.rudnyi.ru/ru/2017/12/k-niskhodyashchei-prichinnosti.html

  • 1

Кстати о соотношении детерминизма и свободы воли

= интервью со Сьюзен Блакморе Susan Blackmore is a psychologist, lecturer and writer researching consciousness, memes, and anomalous experiences, and a Visiting Professor at the University of Plymouth. She is a TED lecturer, blogs for the Guardian, and often appears on radio and television. For further information, click here.
This interview was conducted over Skype in October 2017. The image was taken by Adam Hart-Davis, and is used here with permission.

KP May I start by asking what this free will that we think we have, but really we don’t?Susan Blackmore is a psychologist, lecturer and writer researching consciousness, memes, and anomalous experiences, and a Visiting Professor at the University of Plymouth. She is a TED lecturer, blogs for the Guardian, and often appears on radio and television. For further information, click here....
KP I suppose we like to think that reason has led us to some of our convictions, but is that not somewhat undermined if we take it that the decision to believe certain things is not ultimately ours – but a product of our influences?

SB Reason certainly played a role in that decision, and in many others, but my capacity to reason is also a result of my genes, education and so on. There is plenty of psychology showing that people’s decisions are influenced by all kinds of things. As I said, some of those I am aware of, some of them I am not. The wonderful complexity of human behaviour does not allow for the idea that there might be a soul or a spirit or a self, which is ultimately responsible for decisions. The idea of an unchanging self is ultimately an ephemeral construction, the same self does not exist across time – that idea is an illusion....KP Before moving on and into your question, I’d just like to ask about my experiences of when will is exercised. What is going on when I am trying to overcome anger with someone, or find it in my heart to forgive them. Or indeed, when I give away money when I don’t have much of it to give – Victor Frankl said that was the last of the human freedoms – that we have this ability transcend our animal instincts – do you know what I mean?

SB I do know what you mean, indeed. It’s very important, but I think we’re talking about a different sense of freedom. There are competing pressures within a person – that I’m hungry and I want to eat a piece of cake, yet here is someone who is hungry and needs it more than me. How do I resolve these competing pressures? That will depend on the whole background of the person – did they grow up in a culture that influenced them to do good to others, are they religious – all these things will influence a person’s action. Those are examples of moral conflicts, but conflicts are inherent in animals all the time. You can look at any organism with a brain, and find multiple influences affecting their behaviour.

KP So ultimately we think we are battling our will, but really our decisions are still just a product of our influences?

SB There is a difference between strong and weak will. I would not deny that some people have stronger will than others but those differences depend on prior causes and influences that may include genes but also upbringing. For example, children living in unpredictable and difficult environments are less able to defer rewards now in order to gain more later. Our battles of the will are also not free. итд см тутhttp://examined-life.com/interviews/susan-blackmore/

Re: Кстати о соотношении детерминизма и свободы воли

Сьюзен Блакмор отрицает собственное "Я". У нее "Я" только иллюзия. Поэтому на самом деле это интервью с иллюзией "Я" Сьюзен Блакмор.

  • 1